balance of power

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balance of power

ตั้งหัวข้อ  hacksecrets on Mon Aug 02, 2010 1:07 am



World moving toward balance of power

Mexican Foreign Minister Patricia Espinosa (R) meets with Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi at the official house of Los Pinos in Mexico City, capital of Mexico, July 29, 2010. (Xinhua/Bao Feifei)

Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi on Friday said he disagreed with the theory that world power is shifting from West to East.

Speaking at a joint press conference with his Mexican counterpart Patricia Espinoza, Yang said the world is witnessing a trend that various forces are moving toward a relative balance of power.

He described the trend as an inevitable outcome when the world is becoming increasingly multiploar, economic globalization is developing in depth, and the scientific and technological revolution is bringing about rapid changes.

The process toward a multipolar world not only involves the rapid development of newly-emerging major developing countries, but also the strengthening of many developing countries as regional powers. This is evident in Asia, Africa and Latin America, Yang said.

The developing countries and groups composed of these countries have become a force to be reckoned with in world arena, just like their counterparts in the developed world, the Chinese foreign minister said.

The democratization of international relations is the common aspiration of the people the world over. It is also the requirement and one of the practical outcome of the ongoing multipolarization and globalization process, Yang said, citing the Group of 20 and its growth as an example.

The world countries should rise up to the complicated global challenges and tackle, through consultation, major global issues that bear on world peace and development rather than let a few countries have the final say because the fundamental interest of all countries are at stake. All countries should enhance dialogue and cooperation to achieve a mutually beneficial and win-win outcome, the minister said.

An outstanding problem at present is that many developing countries' reasonable stands and legitimate demands do not receive due respect and attention, he said, urging the developing countries to strengthen unity and strive for equal say and representation in international organizations and equal rights in international community.

This is a protracted and arduous process, yet an inevitable trend of the historical development, he said.

To safeguard and boost the common interests of developing countries and the fundamental interests of all peoples, China will actively promote South-South cooperation and South-North dialogue and push the international political and economic order forward in a more just and fairer way, he said.

On the same day, Yang and Espinoza attended the closing session of a two-day meeting of the China-Mexico Permanent Binational Commission, a high-level platform for the two countries to discuss cooperation in various fields.

The two sides agreed to continue their dialogue and cooperation in bilateral and multilateral fields to further deepen the strategic partnership between China and Mexico. The two countries also signed the Common Action Plan for 2011-2015 and other documents.

Mexico is the second leg of Yang's four-nation tour, which will also take him to Cuba and Costa Rica. His first stop was Austria.

Source: Xinhua

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Re: balance of power

ตั้งหัวข้อ  sunny on Tue Aug 03, 2010 11:21 pm

'No power shift Eastward'

Editor's note: At a joint news conference with Mexican Secretary of Foreign Affairs Patricia Espinosa in Mexico City on July 30, China's Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi was asked whether he agreed with the view that world power is shifting from the West to the East. The following are excerpts from Yang's take on the matter:

There has been an argument that the gravity of world power is shifting from the West to the East, but it is a view hard to be subscribed.

The emerging trend in the world today is the gradual evolution of world power towards relative equilibrium. It is an inevitable outcome of the growing move toward multi-polarity and of deepening economic globalization and rapid revolution in science and technology.

The process toward multi-polarity includes not just faster growth of major emerging countries but also rising regional power of developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Developing countries, like their developed counterparts, have become a force to reckon with on the world stage.
People from all over the world are calling for greater democracy in international relations. This is in keeping with the trend of globalization and the move toward multi-polarity (in world affairs). It is also a specific reflection of such development. The G20 is a case in point. In the face of complicated global issues and challenges, the interests of all countries are closely intertwined.

Major issues that have a bearing on world peace and development need to be addressed through discussion among the countries concerned. They should not, and cannot, be handled by a dominant few nations. Countries should and must strengthen dialogue and cooperation to achieve win-win progress and common development.

An outstanding issue right now is that the reasonable positions, propositions, interests and demands of a vast number of developing countries have not received adequate respect and attention.

Developing countries need to strengthen cooperation, enhance solidarity and work to seek an equal voice and increased representation in international organizations, as well as equal rights and interests, in the global community. This will be a long and arduous process. Yet, it is an inevitable trend in the development of history.

Therefore for the purpose of safeguarding and promoting the common interests of developing countries and the fundamental interests of people across the world, China will work with the international community to actively promote South-South cooperation and North-South dialogue and cooperation, and to facilitate a fairer and more equitable development of the international political and economic order.

Source:China Daily

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Re: balance of power

ตั้งหัวข้อ  sunny on Thu Aug 05, 2010 1:56 am

Is world's center of gravity "moving eastward"?

China's Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi told reporters in Mexico that he did not agreed with the view that the world's center of gravity is shifting from West to the East, when he was asked whether he agreed to this view at a joint news conference with his Mexican counterpart, Secretary of Foreign Affairs Patricia Espinosa, in Mexico City on July 30.

"The emerging trend in the world today is the gradual evolution of world power towards relative equilibrium," Yang said. "It is an inevitable outcome of the growing move toward multi-polarity and of deepening economic globalization and rapid revolution in science and technology."

"The process toward multi-polarity includes not just faster growth of major emerging countries but also rising regional power of developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Developing countries, like their developed counterparts, have become a force to reckon with on the world stage," Yang acknowledged.

"The world's center of gravity", "the focus of international politics" and "the wealth and economic power" are shifting from West to East – These are a sort of view emerged in America and European nations over recent years, especially since the outbreak of the global financial crisis. And it reflected a kind of caution and worries of the United States and European nations about the rapid rise of emerging countries in Asia and the relative decline of their own status.

The center of global forces is shifting from both sides of the Atlantic to the Far Eastern Region, commented Zbigniew Brzezinski, an American strategist and former U.S. national security adviser, two years ago. This is not meant to say that the trans-Atlantic countries would collapse but that they would anyhow lose 500 years of authority for control.

The world situation is changing on the whole, and it is an irrefutable fact. Against the background of economic globalization, developed nations cannot monopolize dividends from the economic globalization and their "fortune" has "spilled out" from pockets of developed nations and multinational corporations, whereas developing countries capitalize on the economic opportunities and technological revolutions to emerge rapidly and the global economic balance scale has started to change. Developing countries currently account for 43.4 percent of the world wealth as against merely 33.7 percent in the 1980s, as indicated by the relevant latest World Bank statistics.

A growing number of rich nations have become debt-ridden, and more poor countries have become those countries with the fastest economic growth, an Italian economist reportedly said. In fact, under the tidal current of the economic globalization, "the wealth and economic power" are shifting to developing countries in "all the four cardinal directions", not merely to the "East" in the light of a traditional U.S.-Europe linguistic environment.

With a drastic rise in their economic strength, developing countries worldwide are calling for greater democracy in international relations and an increased right for global discourse, and even Americans themselves have come to recognize that the post-War II international mechanism they had initiated and led is not duly adapted to the present global reality. It is precisely attributed to this factor that the United States has contributed to the institution of the Group of Twenty (G20) as a leading international economic platform nowadays.

An adjustment based on the reality, however, is not meant to readily abandon the right to control, and the adjustment may only annotate a policy adjustment rather than a strategic adjustment. Perhaps developed countries regard the admission of great emerging countries into the "power center" as the "true democratization of international relations" but for all developing countries, including China, however, the true democratization of international relations is meant that all developing countries have the equal rights to speak out and to formulate the relevant rules or regulations.

Economic globalization and the information revolution have spurred the human communication to enter a new epoch, but the complexity, nevertheless, poses greatest challenges facing this contemporary new era.

As the economic, political and security interests of the nations are closely interwoven, no nation can be left alone and stays self-centered; varied ideologies have not ended with the elapse of the Cold war, but their competitions in the "soft power" has come up on the agenda. The status approval and global status of many countries are yet to be defined.

Therefore, "the new reality is a kind of scattered turbulence" in this extremely complex world and, if people still pander the so-called world center of gravity from a traditional perspective of "the East and West", they are bound to make mistakes.

By People's Daily Online and its author PD sub-desk editor Wang Tian

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Re: balance of power

ตั้งหัวข้อ  sunny on Fri Aug 06, 2010 11:52 pm

Double standards of U.S. nuclear policy


Clinton, with Vietnam Justice Minister Ha Hung Cuong in July,
hailed broad U.S. cooperation with Vietnam

The Obama administration is in advanced negotiations to share nuclear fuel and technology with Vietnam in a deal that would allow Hanoi to enrich its own uranium—terms that critics on Capitol Hill say would undercut the more stringent demands the U.S. has been making of its partners in the Middle East.

The State Department-led negotiations could unsettle China, which shares hundreds of miles of border with Vietnam. It is the latest example of the U.S.'s renewed assertiveness in South and Southeast Asia, as Washington strengthens ties with nations that have grown increasingly wary of Beijing's growing regional might.

U.S. officials familiar with the matter say negotiators have given a full nuclear-cooperation proposal to the communist country and former Cold War foe, and have started briefing House and Senate foreign-relations committees. A top U.S. official briefed on the negotiation said China hadn't been consulted on the talks. "It doesn't involve China," the official said.

Some counterproliferation experts and U.S. lawmakers briefed on the talks say the deal also marks a step backward in Washington's recent nonproliferation efforts, pointing to a key proviso that would allow Hanoi to produce nuclear fuel on its own soil.

Both the Obama and George W. Bush administrations had been requiring that countries interested in nuclear cooperation with the U.S. renounce the right to enrich uranium in-country for civilian purposes, a right provided to signatories of the United Nations' Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The technologies required to produce fuel for power reactors can also be used to create atomic weapons, raising proliferation fears.

U.S. officials have hailed a nuclear-cooperation agreement that President Barack Obama signed last year with the United Arab Emirates as a nonproliferation model, because the Arab country agreed to purchase all of its nuclear fuel from the international market. The Obama administration is currently negotiating a nuclear pact with Jordan in which Washington is also demanding that the country commit to not developing an indigenous nuclear-fuel cycle.

The senior U.S. official briefed on the Vietnam talks said the State Department is setting a different standard for Hanoi, as the Middle East is viewed as posing a greater proliferation risk than Asia. "Given our special concerns about Iran and the genuine threat of a nuclear arms race in the Middle East, we believe the U.A.E....agreement is a model for the region," said the U.S. official. "These same concerns do not specifically apply in Asia. We will take different approaches region by region and country by country."

Vuong Huu Tan, director of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, a government office, said Vietnamese and U.S. officials reached an initial agreement on nuclear cooperation in March and hope to finalize the pact later this year. He said Vietnam didn't plan to enrich uranium, "as it is sensitive to Vietnam to do so."

Congressional staff and nonproliferation experts briefed on the negotiations have been quick to criticize the State Department's position as a rollback of a key Obama administration nonproliferation platform. They also say Washington's position exposes it to criticism from Arab and developing countries that the U.S. is employing a double standard in pursuing its nuclear policies.

This could cause Jordan, Saudi Arabia and other nations currently pursuing cooperation agreements with Washington to balk at accepting the same tough terms as the U.A.E.

"It's ironic...as nonproliferation is one of the president's top goals that the U.A.E. model is not being endorsed here," said a senior Arab official whose government is pursuing nuclear power. "People will start to see a double standard, and it will be a difficult policy to defend in the future."

Nonproliferation experts also challenge the State Department's argument that Asia poses any less of a proliferation threat than the Middle East. They note that North Korea has actively been spreading dual-use technologies to countries such as Myanmar in recent years. Japan is believed to have the technologies to quickly assemble nuclear weapons if the political decision were made.

"After the U.S. set such a good example with the U.A.E., the Vietnam deal not only sticks out, it could drive a stake through the heart of the general effort to rein in the spread of nuclear fuel-making," said Henry Sokolski, executive director of Washington's Nonproliferation Education Center, a public policy think tank.

Vietnam signed an initial memorandum of understanding with the Bush administration in 2001 to pursue cooperation with the U.S. on securing fissile materials and developing civilian nuclear power. The Obama administration has accelerated talks with Hanoi in recent months aimed at completing a deal to allow for the exchange of know-how and cooperation in security, storage and educational areas. It would also allow U.S. firms such as General Electric Co. and Bechtel Corp. to sell nuclear components and reactors to Vietnam, according to U.S. officials.

"If we're able to have U.S. companies and technologies in play in Vietnam this gives the ability to exert some leverage," said the U.S. official briefed on the negotiations. "If we shut ourselves out, others may have different standards."

U.S. officials stressed that any agreement with Vietnam will require that Hanoi's nuclear installations be under close oversight by the U.N.'s nuclear watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency. This is seen as insuring Vietnam's nuclear materials aren't diverted for military purposes.

The Vietnamese are studying the agreement's final draft and further talks are expected in the fall, said American diplomats.

The Obama administration has sought to significantly raise the U.S.'s profile in South and Southeast Asia amid concerns that China has begun to economically and politically dominate the region.

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Hanoi last month and noted growing U.S.-Vietnamese cooperation on a range of security, economic and environmental issues. Mrs. Clinton backed Hanoi's position at a regional security forum that calls for establishing an international legal process to solve territorial disputes in the South China Sea. China attacked Mrs. Clinton's position as threatening Beijing's security interests.

"The Obama Administration is prepared to take the U.S.-Vietnam relationship to the next level," Mrs. Clinton said while in Hanoi. "We see this relationship not only as important on its own merits, but as part of a strategy aimed at enhancing American engagement in the Asia Pacific."

Tensions between Washington and Beijing have heated up again in recent weeks after relations between the two countries seemed to have stabilized in the spring.

U.S. officials this week said they haven't been briefing Beijing, or seeking its approval, while conducting the nuclear talks with Vietnam. "This is a negotiation between the U.S. and Vietnam," said the senior U.S. official. "We don't ask China to approve issues that are in our own strategic interest."

Officials at China's Ministry of Foreign Affairs couldn't immediately be reached for comment.

The U.S. has taken other steps in recent months to strengthen its ties to South and Southeast Asian nations historically wary of Chinese influence.

Last month, the Pentagon reestablished ties with Indonesia's special forces command, known as Kopassus, after severing them in 1999 due to its alleged human-rights abuses. The U.S. also finalized a nuclear-cooperation agreement with India last week, which allows New Delhi to reprocess U.S.-origin nuclear fuels.

Some governments have criticized the India deal in ways similar to the concern being voiced about the Vietnam arrangement—that it illustrates a U.S. double standard. U.S. officials argue that the deal with India, already a nuclear-weapons state, allows for greater international oversight.

In addition to the South China Sea dispute, the U.S. and China have sparred over the proper response to North Korea's alleged sinking in March of a South Korean naval vessel, the Cheonan. The Obama administration has also publicly opposed China's plans to sell two nuclear-power reactors to Pakistan. Washington says the sale would violate Beijing's commitments to the Nuclear Suppliers Group, a Vienna-based body that seeks to control the spread of nuclear technologies.

The Wall Street Journal

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Re: balance of power

ตั้งหัวข้อ  sunny on Thu Aug 26, 2010 2:03 pm

In China, South Africa's leader says wants to join informal BRIC group of emerging nations
By: Gillian Wong

BEIJING, China - South Africa wants to be considered among the leaders of the developing world along with Brazil, Russia, India and China, its president said, pushing for membership of a grouping that has growing global influence.

President Jacob Zuma told reporters Wednesday during a state visit to China that South Africa has discussed its interest in joining the informal grouping of the four major developing nations, known as BRIC, with each member government.

The four nations work to boost trade with each other and have called for developing countries to have bigger role in major global financial decisions, primarily within institutions such as the International Monetary Fund.

Some analysts expect the combined economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China to be larger than the Group of Seven developed economies that includes the U.S. within 25 years if not sooner, making them the dominant global force in everything from trade to finance.

Zuma has already visited Brazil, Russia and India to lobby for a role in the group, which could help raise South Africa's political and economic clout.

"We believe they will take a favourable decision," Zuma said. "We think that the BRIC expresses a very important grouping in a changing world today."

Zuma said there is currently no African member in the informal group. South Africa's "participation in BRIC would mean that an entire continent that has a population of over 1 billion people is represented," he said.

China's foreign ministry said in a faxed response to questions that Beijing understands the desire of some developing countries to join the BRIC grouping and "treats this with an open-minded attitude."

Zuma is on his first visit to China since taking office in May last year and is accompanied by 13 Cabinet ministers and a delegation of 370 business people.

Trade ties between Beijing and Johannesburg have grown rapidly in recent years, with China last year overtaking the United States as South Africa's largest export destination.

South Africa also imports more from China than it does any other country, and last year recorded a $2.7 billion trade deficit with the Asian manufacturing giant — a gap Zuma will be looking to narrow.

South Africa provides iron ore and other vital resources for China but also offers a strategic link to the rest of Africa, where China has been investing heavily in recent years.

On Tuesday, Zuma met with Chinese President Hu Jintao and they signed a "comprehensive strategic partnership" that Zuma said was aimed at balancing trade between the countries and increasing investment in South Africa's manufacturing industry and co-operation in renewable energy.

South Africa says it wants to broaden the relationship with its biggest trade partner from resource exports to partnership in infrastructure and green industries. Companies from both sides signed 12 agreements ranging from memorandums of understanding to possibly develop power grids to memorandums of co-operation to set up a cement plant in South Africa.

Government officials Tuesday signed memorandums of understanding on mining and energy co-operation and transport, among other agreements.

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